Adaptive Immune Responses: Activation of B and T Cells by Antigen

PowerPoint Lecture Slides: Adaptive Immune Response I & II Lecture 01/23/14

  • Immunobiology Ultranet Biology Pages: Hypersensitive Reactions
  • Molecular Immunology
  • Functional Classes of Cytokines [Eur J Immunol. 2007. 37:S34-45]
  • Immunology Glossary
  • Ultranet Biology Pages (see Immunology)
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2009 DTH article Lymphocyte Review Article

Summary Table

Type Cytokine Stimulus Master
Transcription Factor
Effector Cytokine(s) Main Target Cells Effector Functions Pathological Effects
Th1 IL-12 T-bet IFN-γ & IL-2 Macrophages, dendritic cells Intracellular pathogens Autoimmunity;
cell-mediated allergies
Th2 IL-4 GATA-3 IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 Eosinophils, basophils, B cells Extracellular pathogens Asthma and IgE-mediated allergies
Tfh IL-6 & IL-21 Bcl6 IL-21 B cells Class Switch Recombination and Affinity Maturation of antibodies Autoimmune diseases?
Th17 TGF-β plus IL-6
Inhibited by retinoic acid
RORγt IL-17 & IL-22 Neutrophils Extracellular bacteria;
mediates inflammation
Autoimmune diseases
Treg TGF-β minus IL-6
Stimulated by retinoic acid andIL-2
Foxp3 IL-10 & TGF-β all the other types of T cells Immunosuppression; anti-inflammatory None?


FuncitonalClassesCytokines (1)