Graduate School
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1980
UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 1983
The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1986

Areas of Interest

Clinical Interests

Diarrhea, malnutrition, inflammatory bowel disease, infant colic, functional bowel disease (such as irritable bowel syndrome), celiac disease, eosinophilic esophagitis.

Research Interests

Probiotics, gut microbiome, autism spectrum disorders and the GI tract, autoimmune GI disorders.


  • Thornhill, C., Navarro, F., Alabd Alrazzak, B., Hashmi, S., DebRoy, A., Rhoads, J., and Imseis, E. Insufflation with Carbon Dioxide during Pediatric Colonoscopy for Control of Post-Procedure Pain. J. Clin. Gastro 2018: 52(8): 715-720.  PMID: 29210902.
  • Fatheree NY, Liu Y, Taylor CM, Hoang TK, Cai C, Rahbar MH, Hessabi M, Ferris M, McMurtry V, Wong C, Vu T, Dancsak T, Wang T, Gleason W, Bandla V, Navarro F, Tran DQ, and Rhoads JM. Lactobacillus reuteri for infants with colic: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Pediatr 191:170-178, 2017. PMID: 28969890. [Editorial in J. Pediatr 2017; 191: 5-6.]
  • He B, Hoang HK, Tran DQ, Rhoads JM, and Liu Y. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion blocks the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in regulatory T-deficient scurfy mice. Front. Immunol. 8: 1680, 2017. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01680. PMID: 29270168. PMCID: PMC5723640.
  • Hoang TK, He B, Wang T, Tran DQ, Rhoads JM.  Protective effect of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 315(2):G231-G240, 2018. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00084.2017. PMID: 29648878. PMCID: PMC6139641.
  • Ray P, Navarro F, Liu Y, Bell CS, Denson LA, Fatheree NY, Hoang T, and Rhoads JM. GM-CSF antibodies and peripheral Treg cells as potential markers of disease activity to guide therapeutic decisions in pediatric IBD. J Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2 (1): 8, 2018. doi: 10.21767/2575-7733.100037.
  • Rhoads JM, Collins J, Fatheree NY, Hashmi S, Taylor CM, Luo M, Hoang TK, Gleason WA, Van Arsdall MR, Navarro F, and Liu Y. Infant colic represents gut inflammation and dysbiosis. J Pediatr. 203: 55-61, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.042. PMID: 30177353.
  • Liu Y, Tran DQ, and Rhoads JM. Probiotics in disease prevention and treatment. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 58 (S10): S164-S179, 2018. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1121. PMID: 30248200.
  • Liu Y, Alookaran JJ, and Rhoads JM. Probiotics in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Nutrients. 10, 1537, 2018. doi: 10.3390/nu10101537. PMID: 30340338.
  • Mai T, Fatheree NY, Gleason W, Liu Y, Rhoads JM. Infantile Colic: New insights into an old problem. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 47(4):829-844, 2018. PMID: 30337035
  • Moye LM, Liu Y, Coarfa C, Putluri N, Rhoads JM. Plasma Urea Cycle Metabolites May Be Useful Biomarkers in Children With Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Front Pediatr 2019 Jan 10;6:423. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00423.
  • Hoang TK, Freeborn J, Wang T1, Mai T, HeB, Park S, Tran DQ, Roos S, Rhoads JM, Liu Y. Human Breast Milk Promotes the Immunomodulatory Function of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in the Neonatal Rat Intestine. J. Probiotics Health. 2019;7(1). pii: 210. doi: 10.35248/2329-8901.19.7.210. Epub 2019 Jul 26.  PMID:31565666.  PMCID:PMC6764460
  • He B, Liu Y, Hoang TK, Tian X, Taylor CM, Luo M, Tran DQ, Tatevian N, and Rhoads JM.  Antibiotic-modulated microbiome suppresses lethal inflammation and prolongs lifespan in Treg-deficient mice.  Microbiome.  PMID 31699146
  • Liu Y, Tian X, He B, Hoang TK, Taylor CM, Blanchard E, Freeborn J, Park S, Luo M, Couturier J, Tran DQ, Roos S, Wu G, and Rhoads JM. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 feeding of healthy newborn mice regulates immune 2 responses while modulating gut microbiota and boosting beneficial metabolites.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Sep 4. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00107.2019. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID 31482733.  PMCID pending.
  • Mai TT, Tran DQ, Roos S, Rhoads JM, and Liu Y.  Human Breast Milk Promotes the Secretion of Potentially Beneficial Metabolites by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938.  Nutrients 2019 Jul; 11(7):  1548.  Published online 2019 July 9. Doi: 10.3390/nu11071548. PMC6683045.  PMIC 31323989.
  • He B, Hoang TK, Tian X, Taylor CM, Blanchard E, Luo M, Bhattacharjee MB, Freeborn J, Sinyoung P, Couturier J, Lindsey JW, Tran DQ, Rhoads JM, and Liu Y. Lactobacillus reuteri reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by modulating gut microbiota.  Frontiers in Immunology. 10:385, 2019. PMID: 30899262; PMCID: PMC6416370.
  • Shah M, Wan DQ, Liu Y, and Rhoads JM. Gastric Bezoar: Retrieve it, Leave it, or Disbelieve it?. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. February, 72 (2): p e31-e36, 2021. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002923.
  • Liu Y, Hoang TK, Taylor CM, Park ES, Freeborn J, Luo M, Roos S, Rhoads JM. Limosilactobacillus reuteri and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG differentially affect gut microbes and metabolites in mice with Treg-deficiency. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2021 Mar 31. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00072.2021. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33787352.
  • Liu Y, Freeborn J, Armbrister SA, Tran DQ, Rhoads JM. Treg-associated monogenic autoimmune disorders and gut microbial dysbiosis. Pediatr Res. 2021 Mar 17. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01445-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33731809.
  • Park ES, Freeborn J, Venna VR, Roos S, Rhoads JM, Liu Y. Lactobacillus reuteri effects on maternal separation stress in newborn mice. Pediatr Res. 2021 Feb 2. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01374-0. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33531679.