In a pilot study with our group (JAMA 2020, Arnold) it was discovered the cycled phototherapy was able to reduce total phototherapy with little increase in peak total serum bilirubin levels. This prompted a larger, multi-centered, randomized controlled trial of cycled versus continuous phototherapy (NCT01944696), currently on-going started enrollment in July 2020, within theNICHD Neonatal Research Network. In January 2021, the Reduced Lipid Study started enrollment as a factorial design embedded within the NRN cycled phototherapy trial. The Reduced Lipid Study (NCT04584983) is a comparative effectiveness trial comparing the usual dose Intralipid with a reduced dose Intralipid and measuring the impact on wave V latency in brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) at 34-36 weeks postmenstrual age and neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years. In March 2021, NIH KL2 funding was awarded to Dr. Fleig Holzapfel to support the Reduced Lipid Study with plans to expand to multi-sites.

Current interests include:

  1. Human milk nutrition in ELBW infants
  2. Lipid emulsions for preterm infants
  3. Bilirubin neurotoxicity
  4. Bilirubin research